Accessible publication of the results and ideas arising from research is a fundamental part of the scientific enterprise. Yet technological change, an explosion in demand for journal outlets, monopolistic behaviour on the part of some publishers, and the use of journal impact factors and cited publications as primary indicators of scientific merit have created systemic instability in scientific publishing.
Today many institutions and researchers are excluded from accessing articles that are hidden behind paywalls, and from publishing articles in journals with unaffordable fees. There are increasing calls for the reform of scientific publishing in order to further the global progress of science. It is clear that the system is no longer fulfilling the needs of its main audience: scholarly researchers and the institutions in which they work.
At the same time, Open Access is widely seen as a means to overcome inequities in access to knowledge, particularly in poorer countries and institutions, and ultimately to increase the use of scientific evidence in decision-making. However, funding models and routes to genuine Open Access for authors and readers are far from resolved. The scientific publishing model is ripe for renewal.
This project started under our previous Action Plan (2019-2021).
Working in partnership with key stakeholders (the ISC’s membership; funding bodies, universities and institutes and their international representative bodies; open access publishers and NGOs that promote open science and open access) to develop a common purpose for reform and for implementation of the eight principles for scientific publishing endorsed by the ISC’s Members. The project seeks to create change by normalizing existing creative innovations among researchers and their institutions, and by developing and implementing initiatives to support change.
Opening the Record of Science:
Making scholarly publishing work for science in the digital era
In the first half of 2020, the Council developed a draft discussion paper that presents an initial analysis of the scholarly publishing system and its consequences, and a set of draft principles. Drafting was informed by a diverse scoping group (see list below) from the scientific community, and the draft paper was reviewed by an international group of reviewers. The draft paper was intended as background to a series of online discussions within the ISC membership that took place in September 2020. These discussions sought further input and, ultimately, consensus within the ISC community about the extent to which publishing regimes and current trends serve the needs of science, whether and what change may be needed, and provided an opportunity to discuss a way forward for action to achieve reform.
The resulting ISC Report ‘Opening the record of science: making scholarly publishing work for science in the digital era‘ was published in February 2021. It proposes a set of principles for scientific publishing that can maximize the benefit of publishing for global science and for the wider audience for scientific research. In the second phase of the project the Report will be used to set the agenda for discussion and action involving ISC Members and other stakeholders.
✅ A draft discussion paper was prepared between May and June 2020, with input from the scoping group, and was then reviewed before being was circulated to ISC Members on 23 July 2020, together with a survey, for feedback by 1 September 2020. Further input was provided through a series of virtual meetings for ISC Members which took place throughout September. The draft discussion paper was then updated to reflect input received.
✅ An ISC Occasional paper ‘Business Models and Market Structure within the Scholarly Communications Sector‘ was published in September 2020 as a complement to the draft discussion paper.
✅ Following a review by the ISC’s Governing Board, the draft discussion paper developed through 2020 was published as an ISC Report ‘Opening the record of science: making scholarly publishing work for science in the digital era‘ in February 2021.
✅ A Steering Group for phase two of the project was appointed in March 2021 and met for the first time in April 2021. The Group’s remit is to advise the Council on tractable priorities for reform and action; to assist in identifying and addressing relevant regional priorities; and to advise on processes designed to implement change.
✅ During the ISC’s 2nd General Assembly, which took place in October 2021, ISC Members overwhelmingly supported the resolution on endorsing the “Eight principles for reform of scientific publishing” and working together to achieve reform.
✅ An ISC Occasional paper entitled Strengthening research integrity: The role and responsibilities of publishing, which was written by steering group member Michael Barber, was published in November 2021 as a complement to the project’s work.
✅ A zero draft working paper on priorities for reform of scientific publishing has been developed with input from the project steering group. This is intended to guide the development of an advocacy campaign around the eight principles for reform of scientific publishing, which were endorsed by ISC Members in October 2021 (see above).
✅ An ISC Occasional paper on The normalization of preprints, which was written by steering group member Luke Drury, was published in March 2022.
🟡 In this second phase of the project, the Council is engaging and collaborating with its Members, national and international funders, with universities, with open science bodies, publishers and individual scientists to create a powerful and broadly-based coalition for change to ensure that the processes of efficient dissemination and use of scientific work are central parts of a revitalized open science.
The Steering Group provides oversight for Phase 2 of the project. The group was appointed in March 2021.
Professor, University of Malaya
CLACSO Open Science Advisor
Australian Academy of Science
Chief Executive Officer, Universities South Africa
Head, MIT press
Emeritus Professor, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies | Former President, Royal Irish Academy
Fellow and Director of Studies in Economics, Trinity College, Cambridge
Executive Director, SPARC
Executive Director, Training Centre in Communication; AfricArXiv project partner
Publishing working group
This project working group comprising leaders from the scientific publishing community acts as a sounding board for proposals emerging from the project steering committee.
- Juan Pablo Alperin, Associate Professor, Publishing; Associate Director, Public Knowledge Project; Co-Director, Scholarly Communications Lab; Simon Fraser University
- Amy Brand, Director and Publisher of the MIT Press, [Convenor of the working group]
- Arianna Becerril-Garcia, Executive Director, Redalyc, Network of Scholarly Journals from Latin America, the Caribbean, Spain and Portugal; Chair, AmeliCA, Open Knowledge for Latin America and the Global South; Professor, Autonomous University of the State of Mexico
- Leslie Chan, Associate Professor, University of Toronto Scarborough; Director of Bioline International; Chair of the Electronic Publishing Trust for Development.
- Helena Cousijn, Director of Community Engagement, DataCite
- Rupert Gatti, Fellow and Director of Studies in Economics at Trinity College, Cambridge; co-founder of Open Book Publishers
- Andrew Joseph, Digital Publisher, Wits University Press
- Pierre Mounier, OPERAS Coordinator; OpenEdition Associate Director; Directory of Open Access Books (DOAB) Co-Director
- Susan Murray, Executive Director, African Journals OnLine (AJOL)
- Kamran Naim, Head of Open Science (CERN)
- Damian Pattinson, Executive Director, eLife Sciences Publications Ltd
- Eloy Rodrigues, Director, University of Minho Libraries; Chair Executive Board, COAR – Confederation of Open Access Repositories
- Andrew Stammer, Director, CSIRO Publishing
- Stuart Taylor, Publishing Director, The Royal Society (UK)
The Scoping Group provided input on the report that was drafted in 2020.
- Bianca Amaro, President, La Referencia; and Coordinator of the Brazilian Open Science Program, Brazilian Institute of Information in Science and Technology
- Dominique Babini, Open Science Advisor, Latin American Council of Social Sciences (CLACSO)
- Michael Barber, Emeritus Professor of Mathematics and former Vice-Chancellor, Flinders University
- Geoffrey Boulton (Chair and principal author), Regius Professor of Geology Emeritus, University of Edinburgh; Member of the International Science Council Governing Board
- Robin Crew, Senior Research Fellow (Entomology), Centre for the Advancement of Scholarship, University of Pretoria; Past-President, Academy of Science of South Africa
- Luke Drury, Emeritus Professor of Astrophysics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, and former President, Royal Irish Academy
- Martin Eve, Professor of Literature, Technology and Publishing, Birkbeck, University of London
- Sari Hanafi, Professor of Sociology, American University of Beirut; President, International Sociological Association
- Mary Lee Kennedy, Executive Director, Association of Research Libraries, USA
- Nathalie Lemarchand, Professor of Geography, University Paris 8; Vice-President, International Geographical Union
- Anna Mauranen, Professor of English Philology, University of Helsinki; President, Finnish Academy of Science and Letters
- Ravi Murugesan, Associate, INASP
- Joseph Mwelwa, JointMindsConsult, Botswana
- François Robida, French Geological Survey (BRGM) and International Union of Geological Science Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Data
- Peter Strickland, Executive Managing Editor, International Union of Crystallography
- Paul Uhlir, Consultant on Information Policy and Management
- Zhang Xiaolin, Chinese Academy of Science, China.
This Group reviewed the report in mid-2020 and provided feedback to the ISC Governing Board.
- Pearl Dykstra (Chair), Director of Research of the Department of Public Administration and Sociology at the Erasmus University Rotterdam
- Hazami Habib, Chief Executive Officer, Academy of Sciences Malaysia
- Molapo Qhobela, Chief Executive Officer, National Research Foundation, South Africa
- Peter Suber, Director of the Harvard Office for Scholarly Communication, Director of the Harvard Open Access Project (Berkman Klein Center), and Senior Researcher, Berkman Klein Center
- Sally Wyatt, Professor of Digital Cultures, Technology & Society Studies, Maastricht University