Scientific procedures, scientific organizations and scientists themselves must continually adapt to changes in knowledge, technologies and societal norms. Science systems must be open and agile, and should adjust in ways that safeguard scientific freedom and advance scientific responsibility, rigour and relevance. Traditional systems of scientific discovery and innovation have given the world immensely beneficial and transformative knowledge and innovation. Now they must respond to pressures for greater interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary collaboration, to the explosion of digital technologies, as well as the imperative to ensure that science systems represent and promote the intellectual contributions of women and other under-represented groups, and respect and engage with indigenous knowledge. There is increasing recognition of the need for change in scientific systems, including the reform of academic incentives, funding systems, processes of scientific publication, and scientific norms in the private sector.