The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine is the highest scientific institution in Ukraine. Under its Statutes, the Academy has independent self-governing rights. Set up in 1918, its first President was V. Vernadsky. The NAS now has approximately 170 institutes and various other research institutions which carry out research in the fields of mathematics, physics and astronomy, engineering, chemistry, life sciences, economics, history, social and behavioural sciences. The Academy is active in its advisory capacity to the Government and Parliament of Ukraine.