While research communities are trying to better understand complex, compounding and cascading disasters, the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai eruption and tsunami in January 2022 devastated Tonga’s emergency management system.
Natural hazards often occur simultaneously or successively, resulting in complex, compounding and cascading impacts that interact. Climate change may increase both compound and cascading hazards in the future, and as such, knowledge on how these impacts interface is crucial for reducing disaster risk.
- A forensic assessment of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai eruption and tsunami in Tonga
- A cascading and compounding hazard assessment
- Volcanic eruption and tsunami scenarios
- Lessons learned and ways forward
👉 A summary of the initial lessons learned from the Tonga tsunami and eruption: here
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This Briefing Note represents an integrated perspective of climate, environmental and disaster risk science and practice regarding systemic risk. It provides an overview of the concepts of systemic risk that have evolved over time and identifies commonalities across terminologies and perspectives associated with systemic risk used in different contexts.
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