A Guide to SDG Interactions: from Science to Implementation

The report examines the interactions between the various goals and targets, determining to what extent they reinforce or conflict with each other. It provides a blueprint to help countries implement and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).


Countries around the world are faced with a significant challenge: How can they reach the 17 SDGs – and 169 targets that sit underneath these goals – by 2030? The SDGs, which were adopted by the international community in 2015, cover a diverse range of issues including gender equity, sustainable cities, access to clean water, and good governance. It is a big, unwieldly, ambitious agenda that – if it is successfully implemented – could set the world on a course toward inclusive, sustainable development.

The report proposes a seven-point scale to quantify these synergies and conflicts. The scale ranges from +3, which applies when one goal or target is very reinforcing of others, to -3, which applies when goals and targets conflict with each other. A score of 0 indicates neutral interaction.

The report includes detailed analysis of four SDGs and their interactions with other goals:

  • SDG2: Zero Hunger
  • SDG3: Good Health and Well-being
  • SDG7: Affordable and Clean Energy
  • SDG14: Life below Water

Below, you will find download links for the full report and for the individual chapters.

To request a paper copy of the report, please e-mail secretariat@council.science.

Below you can download the individual chapters of the report.

Executive Summary


SDG2 – No Poverty

SDG3 – Health and Well-being

SDG7 – Clean Energy

SDG 14 – Life below water

Next steps


This annex contains three illustrative examples of interactions between SDG 2 and the other SDGs.