A Guide to SDG Interactions: from Science to Implementation

The report examines the interactions between the various goals and targets, determining to what extent they reinforce or conflict with each other. It provides a blueprint to help countries implement and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

A Guide to SDG Interactions: from Science to Implementation


Countries around the world are faced with a significant challenge: How can they reach the 17 SDGs – and 169 targets that sit underneath these goals – by 2030? The SDGs, which were adopted by the international community in 2015, cover a diverse range of issues including gender equity, sustainable cities, access to clean water, and good governance. It is a big, unwieldly, ambitious agenda that – if it is successfully implemented – could set the world on a course toward inclusive, sustainable development.

The report proposes a seven-point scale to quantify these synergies and conflicts. The scale ranges from +3, which applies when one goal or target is very reinforcing of others, to -3, which applies when goals and targets conflict with each other. A score of 0 indicates neutral interaction.

The report includes detailed analysis of four SDGs and their interactions with other goals:

Below, you will find download links for the full report and for the individual chapters.

A Guide to SDG Interactions: from Science to Implementation

List of all SDGs & targets

Accompanying poster

Below you can download the individual chapters of the report.

Executive summary

As the process of implementing the 2030 Agenda moves forward, there is a need to address the scope and systemic nature of the Agenda and the urgency of the challenges.


Introducing a framework for understanding Sustainable Development Goal Ineracations

SDG2 – No Poverty

SDG2 – End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

SDG3 – Health and Well-being

SDG3 – Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

SDG7 – Clean Energy

SDG7 – Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

SDG 14 – Life below water

SDG14 – Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

Next steps

The conceptual framework and assessment of key interactions of the four goals presented in this report are intended as a starting point for further work.


This annex contains three illustrative examples of interactions between SDG 2 and the other SDGs.

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