Open Science for the 21st Century

Openness is at the heart of the scientific endeavour. This draft working paper, which was developed in response to a UNESCO global consultation on open science, brings together work developed within the International Science Council’s (ISC) community on open science.

The paper describes the rationale for and the origins of the modern open science movement, its dimensions and its applications. It makes recommendations to scientists, to universities, to UNESCO and to other science systems stakeholders about changes that are necessary for the effective operation of open science. The paper includes information on the ISC projects and programmes that are designed to support aspects of open science, as described in the ISC Action Plan 2019 -2021. The appendix includes answers to specific questions posed by UNESCO, for which the detailed arguments are presented in the main text.

For more information on Open Science in the 21st Century, or to share your comments on the document, please contact

Open Science for the 21st Century

Cover photo by Callum Wale on Unsplash.