The paper describes the rationale for and the origins of the modern open science movement, its dimensions and its applications. It makes recommendations to scientists, to universities, to UNESCO and to other science systems stakeholders about changes that are necessary for the effective operation of open science. The paper includes information on the ISC projects and programmes that are designed to support aspects of open science, as described in the ISC Action Plan 2019 -2021. The appendix includes answers to specific questions posed by UNESCO, for which the detailed arguments are presented in the main text.
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