The existing energy supply and demand situation means that conventional sources, such as oiland coal, will be depleted at an alarming rate. Growing concern about the environmental impact of the various energy resources places restrictions on their use. The Kyoto Protocol requires participating countries to reduce carbon emissions drastically over the next decade. To improve the energy situation and make it sustainable, serious efforts need to be made to advance knowledge in the following directions:
- new and energy efficient methods for recovery, power generation and distribution
- energy conservation techniques,
- increased utilization of renewable energy sources, and
- development and utilization of emerging energy sources and techniques.