Founded in 1869, the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) is the top scientific organization of Bulgaria. It has 68 institutes, laboratories and other research units which carry out basic and applied research in the fields of the natural, technical and social sciences and the humanities. BAS also carries out PhD programmes and actively participates in the formulation of the national policy for science and technology. The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences has bilateral agreements with scientific organizations from 48 countries and is a member of more than 20 international governmental and non-governmental organizations. It has its own publishing house and is the major organizer of international scientific events in Bulgaria.